Genius of the European Square - Table of Contents

Introduction

PART ONE. Genius of the European Square

1. A UNIQUE INVENTION

  • A uniquely European invention.
  • Genius loci.
  • The significance of the European square.
  • The European square today.
  • The square under threat

2. SOCIAL LIFE ON THE SQUARE

  • Improvisation.
  • Sociability and well-being
  • Dialogue on the square.
  • Democratic dialogue, civic engagement.
  • Encounters in multiple roles.
  • The European square as teacher.
  • The square under threat

3. THE INCLUSIVE COMMUNITY

  • Catalyst for festivity and celebration.
  • Observing public life.
  • Visibility.
  • Ethics of the European square.

4. CATALYST FOR DEMOCRACY

  • The ancient agora and the invention of democracy.
  • The Roman forum.
  • The Dark Ages.
  • Reinvention of the market square in the Middle Ages and the rebirth of civic democracy.
  • Evolution of the European square and the waning of civic democracy.
  • The process of democratic dialogue and civic engagement.

5. FRAMING SOCIAL LIFE

  • Visual enclosure, continuous building walls.
  • Threshold experience.
  • Human scale.
  • Facades.
  • Architectural backdrop.
  • Architectural identity.
  • Arcades.
  • Shape of the square
  • Composition
  • Size

6. BUILDING USES, URBAN FABRIC

  • Building uses
  • Mixed use: the shop/house.
  • Civic and religious buildings.
  • Cafes and restaurants.
  • Surrounding urban fabric
  • Fine textured continuous building blocks.
  • Compact structure.
  • Mix of uses.
  • Residential population.
  • Crossing of pedestrian ways.

7. A HOSPITABLE SETTING

  • Seating, formal and informal.
  • Changes in level, steps, balconies.
  • Focal points, anchors.
  • Public art.
  • Sun and shelter from elements.
  • Paving for pedestrians.

8. POLICIES TO ENHANCE SPIRIT OF PLACE

  • Transportation policy
  • Traffic-free or traffic-tamed.
  • Parking.
  • Access by public transit.
  • Pedestrian and bicycle access
  • Urban space management
  • Farmers' markets.
  • Street entertainers.
  • Community festivals and celebrations.

PART TWO. Celebrating European Squares

9. PIAZZA SAN MARCO, VENICE. Stage set and drama

  • Stage set.
  • Daily rhythm.
  • Seasonal patterns.
  • Festivals.
  • Evolution of Piazza San Marco.

10. THE VENETIAN CAMPO. Ideal setting for social life and community

  • Campo Santa Margherita.
  • Campo San Barnaba.
  • Campo San Luca and Campo San Bartolomeo

11. PIAZZA IL CAMPO, SIENA. Celebrating civic democracy

  • Palio.
  • Significance of the Piazza.

12. PIAZZA DELLE ERBE, PIAZZA DELLE FRUTTA, PIAZZA DEI SIGNORI, PADOVA. Market squares for civic dialogue

  • Piazza delle Erbe.
  • Piazza delle Frutta.
  • Piazza dei Signori.
  • Significance of Piazza delle Erbe and Piazza delle Frutta

13. PIAZZA DEL POPOLO, ASCOLI PICENO. The passeggiata lives.

  • Quintana festival
  • Carnival.
  • Significance of the piazza.

14. GROTE MARKT, HANDSCHOEN MARKT, ANTWERP. Reviving the heart of a great city.

  • Grote Markt.
  • Handschoen Markt.
  • Groenplaats.
  • Hendrik Conscienceplein.
  • The heart of the city revived.

15. GROTE MARKT AND THE BURG, BRUGES. Civic stage or tourist attraction?

  • Grote Markt.
  • The Burg.
  • T'Zand.
  • Historical perspective.

16. STRASBOURG'S PLACES. Crossroads of Europe

  • A wealth of squares.
  • Place Kléber.
  • Place Gutenberg.
  • Place de la Cathédral.
  • Marché-aux-Cochons-de-Lait.
  • The crossroads of Europe.

17. PLACES IN AIX-EN-PROVENCE. Settings for markets, students, tourists and the arts.

  • Place de l’Hôtel de Ville.
  • Place Richelme.
  • Place des Cardeurs.
  • Place des Prêcheurs.
  • Place de Verdun.
  • Cours Mirabeau.
  • Historic background.

18. MÜNSTERPLATZ, FREIBURG. A vibrant marketplace

  • Freiburg's farmers' market.
  • Social life on Münsterplatz.
  • Münsterplatz.
  • Rathausplatz.
  • Augustinerplatz.
  • Historical background.
  • Freiburg after WW II
  • Regional planning and the healthy city.

19. MARKT, HILDESHEIM. A square reborn

  • The story.
  • Town Hall.
  • Temple House.
  • Wedekind House.
  • Lünzel House and Roland Endowed House.
  • Bakers' Guildhall.
  • Town Tavern, Rococo House and Wool Weavers' Guild House.
  • Social life on the marketplace.
  • The architects' evaluation.
  • Who should judge?

20. SALZBURG'S SQUARES. Vision of the ideal city

  • Universitätsplatz
  • Alte Markt.
  • Residenzplatz.
  • Mozartplatz.
  • Kapitalplatz.
  • Domplatz.
  • Evolution of Salzburg's squares.

21. PLAZA MAYOR, SALAMANCA. Sumptuous soul of the city.

  • Daily life on Plaza Mayor.
  • Construction of Plaza Mayor.
  • Evolution of Plaza Mayor.

22. OLD TOWN SQUARE, PRAGUE. A square that lost its functions.

  • Staroměstské Náměsti.
  • Loss of market functions.
  • Loss of civic functions.
  • Loss of community functions.
  • Business on the square.
  • Growth of tourism.
  • The significance of Staroměstské Náměsti.
  • Historical background.
  • Old Town Square and tourism.

23. UPPER SQUARE AND LOWER SQUARE, OLOMOUC. Civic salon and marketplace.

  • Upper square.
  • Lower square.
  • Surrounding urban fabric.
  • Historical background.

24. MASARYK SQUARE, JIHLAVA. Architectural aesthetics vs. economic function.

  • Functions of the square.
  • Architectural intrusion.
  • Balancing economic and social functions.
  • Historical background.

25. MAIN SQUARE, KRAKOW. A magnificently restored square.

  • Social life on the square.
  • Rynek Glowny (Main Square).
  • Events and activities on the square.
  • The challenge of tourism.
  • Modern commercial development.
  • Historical background.

PART THREE. Evaluating the Square Today

26. DANGERS TO THE EUROPEAN SQUARE

  • Uncontrolled commercial development at the city’s periphery.
  • Loss of residential population in the city center.
  • Inappropriate architecture.
  • Encroachment.
  • Parking.
  • Specialization of building uses.
  • Mass tourism.
  • Mass media events.
  • Commercialization of community festivals.
  • Protect the European square.

27. LEARNING FROM THE EUROPEAN SQUARE.

  • America's heritage.
  • The Law of the Indies.
  • Village green, marketplace and main square.
  • Adaptation and decline of the public square.
  • Designing a European style, multi-functional square.
  • Reviving America's main squares.
  • New neighborhood squares.
  • Reviving community and civic engagement.